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Pancreas
Pancreas


VIPoma

Definition:

VIPoma is a very rare type of cancer that usually grows from cells in the pancreas called islet cells.



Alternative Names:

Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor; Pancreatic endocrine tumor



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

VIPoma causes cells in the pancreas to produce a high level of a hormone called vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). This hormone increases secretions from the intestines. It also relaxes some of the smooth muscles in the GI (gastrointestinal) system.

The cause is not known.

VIPomas are often diagnosed in adults, most commonly at age 50. Women are more likely to be affected than men. This cancer is rare. Only about 1 in 10 million people a year get it.



Symptoms:
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Diarrhea (watery, and often in large amounts)
  • Flushing or redness of the face
  • Nausea
  • Weight loss


Signs and tests:

Signs may include:

  • Dehydration
  • High volume of diarrhea (even without eating)
  • Low stomach acid (achlorhydria)
  • Low blood potassium (hypokalemia ), which can cause leg cramps

Tests include:



Treatment:

The first goal of treatment is to correct dehydration. Fluids are often given through a vein (intravenous fluids) to replace fluids lost in diarrhea.

The next goal is to slow the diarrhea. Medicines can help control diarrhea. One such medicine is octreotide. It is a manmade form of a natural hormone blocks the action of VIP.

The best chance of a cure is surgery to remove the tumor. If the tumor has not spread to other organs, surgery can often cure the condition.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

Surgery can usually cure VIPomas. But, in one third to one half of patients, the tumor has spread by the time of diagnosis and cannot be cured.



Complications:
  • Cancer spread (metastasis)
  • Cardiac arrest from low blood potassium level
  • Dehydration


Calling your health care provider:

If you have watery diarrhea for more than 2 - 3 days, call your doctor.



Prevention:



References:

Jensen RT, Norton JA. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 32.

National Cancer Institute. PDQ Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified 11/10/2012. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/gastric/HealthProfessional. Accessed November 16, 2012.




Review Date: 11/17/2012
Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

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